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Wheat cultivation in rain-fed areas
GROWING wheat in rain-fed (barani) conditions is being practiced in many countries which are getting more yield than in ours due to adoption of better management
December 2007

Advantages of compost in crops farming
THE use of inorganic fertilisers has considerably increased with the cultivation of exhaustive crops in the backdrop of green revolution. Despite that, hundred of thousand of cultivated fields have become unproductive due to depletion of nutrients essential for plant growth and development.
December 2007

Significant of Bt Maize to enhance yield
Pakistan is largely based on agriculture; it contributes about 25% to the national economy, provides employment for over 50% of the labour force and is main source of income generation in rural areas. During last four years 2002-06, average annual growth in agriculture sector has been frustrating due to low production of the main crops.
November 2007

Scope of olive cultivation in Pakistan
There is a lot of potential for olive cultivation in Pakistan. The estimates have revealed that if eight million wild olive trees present in different provinces are grafted and converted into the productive olive then there is a potential of earning a maximum of one billion dollars annually (Table-4).

October 2007

Crop air pollution assessment methodology
HUMAN beings probably are the first to experience the harmful effects of air pollution when they lit fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then they have gone on polluting the atmosphere.
June 2007

Ftilizer selection for sustainable agriculture
Crops require 16 essential elements to grow properly. The elements include carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (02); those are derived from air and water. All the remaining nutrients used by plants come from soil in the form of inorganic salts.
May 2007

Rice-fish aqua culture improves farm income
RICE-Fish aqua culture is practised mainly to improve the income of farmers and to make an essential item available in the diet of rural people in areas where ‘rice and fish’ form the staple food. It requires very little input and provides off-season employment to farm labours.
May 2007

Improving sugar recovery
THE sugar content recovery of sugarcane cultivars grown in the country varies from 7.5 to 8 per cent, far away from international standards. Keeping this in view, the Pakistan Sugar Mills Association has put forward a proposal to develop local cane varieties with better yield and sugar contents.
May 2007

Rice ratooning: a technology to increase production
RICE occupies a conspicuous position in our agro-based economy. It has emerged as a major export commodity contributing about 13 per cent to the total foreign exchange earnings of the country, 6.1 per cent value-added in agriculture and 1.3 per cent in GDP in the country.
April 2007

Maize: cereal with a variety of uses
MAIZE ranks third most grown crop in the world with an area of more than 118 million hectares with an annual production of about 600 million metric tones. In Pakistan, maize is the fourth largest grown crop after wheat, cotton and rice.
March 2007

Laser technology and irrigation efficiency
Wilt is the loss of rigidity and dropping of plant parts (partially or wholly). It is one of the most common and destructive disease of many field, vegetable and fruit crops, also attack on many species of wild plants and trees.
March 2007

Wilt: The most common and destructive disease of crops
Wilt is the loss of rigidity and dropping of plant parts (partially or wholly). It is one of the most common and destructive disease of many field, vegetable and fruit crops, also attack on many species of wild plants and trees.
February 2007

Weed management in wheat crop
WEEDS constitute the single greatest cause of crop loss in Pakistan. Because their effect on yield tends to be under estimated, their presence is often tolerated. The
reduction in wheat yield due to weeds ranges from 15-35 per cent.
January 2007

Venturing in spinach cultivation
Spinach is an excellent source of beta cortene, vitamin C, E, and K, potassium, iron, sulphur, sodium, folic acid and oxalic acid. It contains more protein than most vegetables.
December 2006

Promoting use of microbial biopesticides
THE current use of pesticides in Pakistan is about 1,30,000 metric tons of which approximately 90 per cent is applied on cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables. The wide use of pesticides in agriculture has contaminated the highly value-added commodities like rice, cotton, vegetables and fruits.
November 2006

Technologies for increasing wheat crop
Pakistan is predominantly an agricultural country. However, the yield of almost all the crops obtained is far less than their potential.
November 2006

Diseases of crops

Plant diseases damage the crop, reduce the yield, lower the quantity and quality, increase the cost of production and require cash outlays for material and equipment for control measure.
October 2006

Adopting latest rice planting systems

RICE an important food crop and one of the main export items accounts for 6.1 per cent of the value-added in agriculture and 1.3 per cent to the GDP. The country in respect to area under rice (paddy) ranks 10th in the world and 14th for yield per ha.
October 2006

Crop yield from drip irrigation

TO win acceptance in markets, the high-value crops such as fruits, vegetables and flowers must be of top quality. Quality depends on timely management decisions - especially crop production inputs. Water, in the form of precipitation or irrigation, is one of the most critical inputs.
September 2006

The Most Easy and Economical Mushroom Cultivation Methodology

The higher, fleshy fungi bloom into a visible umbrella like fruiting body, are called mushrooms. These are considered as the source of Proteins, Vitamins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Amino acids and Minerals.
September 2006

Green-house vegetable cultivation

Green-house vegetable production is a highly intensive enterprise requiring substantial labour and capital inputs. Because of this, potential growers should carefully consider all factors necessary for a successful enterprise.
September 2006

Onion diseases and IPDM

Onion is an important bulb vegetable crop, commercially grown in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Onion is being used as a raw and given protection to human beings from sun stroke, normally is consumed green as well as in mature stages almost by every one (poor as well as rich people), by different mean.
September 2006

Foliar fertilizers

gricultural scientists are day night busy; to evolve high yielding crop varieties and introduce most easy and economical crop production technology, for fulfillment of the food requirements of the population, growing up very fast.
September 2006

Upgrading technology for lemon production

A LEMON tree is a sub-tropical plant, and in its natural habitat, its fruit is green and only slightly acidic for the fruit to develop its flavour and yellow color.
August 2006

AAB monitoring device, cultural practices and chemicals for management of mango tree mortality

Mango, Mangifera indica is one of the important fruits of Pakistan which is exported to many countries such as Dubai, Saudi Arabia, UK, Germany, France, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Singapore and Malaysia.
August 2006

Health benefits of grapefruit

Grapefruit occupies a high place among the citrus family because of its flavour, appetizing properties and refreshing qualities.
August 2006

Mealy bug: An emerging threat to cotton crop

Cotton is the most important fiber crop of Pakistan. It plays pivotal role by providing fiber, food and fuel and earns foreign exchange. The cotton provides raw material to all textile mills, ginning factories and oil mills.
July 2006

Potato yield, storage and exports

POTATO (Solanum Tuberesum) is a source of vitamin C, even though the vitamin content per unit weight is comparatively low. The amount is highest in new potatoes and falls gradually during the post harvest storage.
May 2006

Issues, challenges and opportunities in floriculture

THE flower industry comprises cultivation and trade of cut flowers, cut foliage, potted plants and bedding plants. The main representatives of cut flowers are: the rose, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, carnation and lilies.
April 2006

Storage of grain

THE storage of grain requires proper care and planning. It releases and absorbs heat and moisture from the surrounding. Insects infesting stored foods can be divided into primary and secondary grain feeders. Insects capable of infesting undamaged grains include moths, weevils, lesser grain borer and grain beetle.
April 2006

Biological control of weeds, pests and diseases

THE biological control of weeds, pests and diseases is cost effective, environment- friendly and safe. It increases the yield and productivity of crops.
April 2006

Saving cotton from the pink bollworm

THE cotton crop is hit by many pests but pink bollworm is its worst enemy which not only causes loss to crop but also affects the lint quality. The economic loss it inflicts is heavier than the impact of any other worm.
January 2006

Potential of cumin cultivation

THE Northern Areas of Pakistan have ideal climatic conditions for cultivation of diverse plant species. Major parts of the area has temperate climate where herbs of medicinal value and field crops requiring low temperatures can grow.
December 2005

Potato Crop Health Management through IPM Approach

Potato ranks third among food crops after wheat and rice and fifth in total production in Pakistan. It produces high energy and nutritional value per unit area than wheat, rice and maize.
December 2005

Return on date orchards in Balochistan

Pakistan is the fifth largest date producer in the world, with an area of 74.80 thousand hectares and production of 426.80 thousand tons. Balochistan produces 225 thousand tons of dates from an area of 42.3 thousand hectares and contributes 53 per cent to the total national output. Dates are second after apples in the area.
December 2005

Rice productivity and its export

US agriculture authorities and researchers are reported to have estimated a jump in rice production in Pakistan from about 4.50 million tons to 5.4 m tones because of higher productivity, increased acreage under the crop and favourable weather conditions for the crop. This has raised the prospects of a one billion dollar return from rice exports.
November 2005

Managing salinity for sustainable agricultural development

ABOUT 60 per cent of tubewell water used for irrigation in Pakistan is saline to sodic in nature that adds salt in agricultural lands each year. The overall aquifer, with a potential of about 50 MAF, is being exploited to an extent of about 38 MAF by over 562,000 private tube-wells and about 10,000 public.
November 2005

Beneficial food and efficient medicine through Cultivation of straw mushroom, volvariella volvacea

PRESSURE on the productivity of agriculture has been increasing the world over because of the rising population in many countries, and Pakistan, with its explosion of population, has been feeling the pinch more intensely than many other nations.
October 2005

Conservation technologies in farming

PRESSURE on the productivity of agriculture has been increasing the world over because of the rising population in many countries, and Pakistan, with its explosion of population, has been feeling the pinch more intensely than many other nations.
October 2005

Trout farming — a lucrative business

TROUT fish farming is an important natural and potential source of income of the farmers of Northern Areas (NAs). Nature has bestowed the NAs with large cold water resources with a variety of habitats that are best suited for trout farming.
October 2005

Enhancing yield with planting machine

A MAJORITY of farmers still use the conventional crop production technology which result not only in low crop yields but also requires heavy inputs like fuel, labour, irrigation water.
August 2005

Strawberry cultivation

Pakistan is producing a limited quantity of strawberries which are either eaten or used in preparing ice-cream, jam, jelly, pickle, cake or milk shake. The fruit fetches Rs100 to Rs120 per kg in big cities.
April 2005

Seed production technology

Agriculture sector is one of the major sources of income and employment for the people of barani areas. Successful transfer of improved technology to target beneficiaries requires strong and viable linkages of development.
January 2005

Oil palm: a crop of the future

Agriculture, a major economic activity employs half of the country's labour force and generates nearly fourth of the gross national product.
November 2004

Oil palm: a crop of the future
November 2004

Dissatisfaction over increase in wheat support price
October 2004

Water conservation strategies
October 2004

Viral diseases of economic crops
October 2004

Red-leaf-disease in Sindh cotton belt
October 2004

Fertilizers management to compensate water shortage
October 2004

Biological control of natural enemies
October 2004

Mango diseases and their management
September 2004

Improving the marketing system of vegetables
August 2004

'Karnal bunt' disease in wheat
August 2004

Watercourses lining, a popular activity
August 2004

Herbs at your doorstep
August 2004

Wheat growing on saline soils
August 2004

Encouraging vegetable cultivation
August 2004

Future of genetic engineering and bougainvillaea flowers in Sindh-Pakistan
July 2004

More Yield with Less Water. How Efficient Can be Water Conservation in Agriculture ?
July 2004

Seed security
July 2004

Growing lychee trees under datepalm in Khairpur
June 2004

Weather pundits forecast extra stress
June 2004

A tree with a purpose Gliricidia sepium
June 2004


Dissatisfaction over increase in wheat support price

An increase in wheat support price has always been a debatable issue in our country and the current Rs50 per 40kg hike to Rs400 is is not an exception.
October 2004

Water conservation strategies

Water is an essential factor for life and nothing can stay alive without it. Plants can not grow without water. When plenty of water was available, more and more barren lands were brought under cultivation.
October 2004

Viral diseases of economic crops

The viruses are parasitic in nature and cause the most infectious group of diseases, of all forms of livings (including human being, animals and plants).
October 2004

Red-leaf-disease in Sindh cotton belt

The share of Sindh in cotton production is about 20 per cent. According to the Crop Management Committee, cotton cultivation in the province has been recorded on 611,000 hectares this year which is 21,000 hectares more than the target fixed by the federal government.
October 2004

Fertilizers management to compensate water shortage

Water shortage has placed a question mark over the rabi crops, particularly wheat but water is a commodity that can only be managed, not increased, certainly not within a few weeks time.
October 2004

Biological control of natural enemies

In Sindh and other provinces of Pakistan, farmers spray toxic chemicals (pesticides) on cotton, vegetables, oilseeds and fruit crops. The pesticides have brought positive results in boosting production but many chemicals have caused resistance in pest species.
October 2004

Mango diseases and their management

Mango, Mangifera indica L. is one of the most important foreign currencies earning fruit crop of Pakistan, through exporting to many countries, mainly to Dubai, Saudi Arabia, UK, Germany, France, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Singapore and Malaysia.
September 2004

Improving the marketing system of vegetables

Vegetable consumption in Pakistan is low. People in the upper income strata consume above average, while the bulk of rural and a large percentage of urban population consume little vegetables.
August 2004

'Karnal bunt' disease in wheat

In 2004, Pakistan imported 0.5 million tons of wheat from Australia to meet its deficit. When the consignment reached Karachi, seed samples were examined and found to be infested with a fungus (Neovossia indica) causing 'karnal' or partial bunt disease.
August 2004

Watercourses lining, a popular activity

The project for the lining of 86,000 watercourses in the country over a period of four years at a cost of 66 billion rupees is a major initiative that should strengthen the agriculture sector in a significant way. It is however not a new move because it is already a part of the farming sector.
August 2004

Herbs at your doorstep

A wide range of culinary herbs can be grown in small areas in pots and containers at home , writes Zahrah Nasir.
August 2004

Wheat growing on saline soils

Pakistan's 70 per cent population living in rural areas is directly related to agriculture. Their prosperity is dependent on cotton, wheat, rice, sugar cane and maize production.
August 2004

Encouraging vegetable cultivation

Poverty in Pakistan, specially in its rural areas, is deep and widespread. One effective way of fighting rural poverty is to encourage vegetable cultivation. Vegetable cultivation would engage rural labourers in different farming practices such as sowing, weeding, hoeing, harvesting, packing, etc.
August 2004

Future of genetic engineering and bougainvillaea flowers in Sindh-Pakistan

The plant  is named after French navigator de Bougainvillaea who carried it to in the ship to fame. It belongs to Four-Q-Clock family (Nyctaginaceae). The genous bougainvillaea, contains several species but only three are important. It is an ornamental climber. It also called paper flower.
July 2004

More Yield with Less Water. How Efficient Can be Water Conservation in Agriculture ?

In rain-fed as well as in irrigated agriculture the urgency rises to implement water conservation measures, defining water conservation as “measures designed to promote efficient use of water and to eliminate waste of water”. Besides supply side measures we have a wide variety of water demand management measures, which can be grouped into measures to reduce losses, and measures to increase the efficiency of water applied.
July 2004

Seed security

Obtaining a reliable supply of good quality seed can be extremely problematic here in Pakistan and one way around this is, when you have grown something that you consider to be worth increasing, or if an annual for replanting the following season, then simply save your own seed from existing plants.
July 2004

Growing lychee trees under datepalm in Khairpur

The predominant fruit crop of Khairpur district in upper Sindh is date-palm. According to a conservative estimate, around 100,000 acre of district land is under date-palm cultivation. Recently, a new trend, of growing different crops and fruit trees under the canopy of date-palm, has been observed, and the reason behind these inter-croppings gaining popularity is lucrative returns.
June 2004

Weather pundits forecast extra stress

The national weather forecasters believe that the next half-century will bring about an additional stress over "already resource-stressed country" through monsoon circulation, higher surface temperatures and the increase in frequency and magnitude of rainfall events.
June 2004

A tree with a purpose Gliricidia sepium

The Pakistan Agriculture Research Council has recently acquired a leguminous tree with amazing potentials and several properties that can kill field rats, a serious enemy of agriculture. The rats die due to haemorrhage in the guts, lungs and spleen, just like the costly, hard to obtain coumerin does without harming cattle and human beings.
June 2004


Phasing out azodyes with indigo cultivation

Dyes which contain free heavy metal ions are classified as azo-dyes. Under chemical reaction, these dyes produce amino acid groups which causes cancer and allergies. Neither the common people are aware of the harful effects of the azodyes, nor the government takes any measures to put a ban on the use of these poisonous dyes.

A future for organic apple growing in the Northeast

In the humid Eastern states, expanding marketing opportunities are matched by stubborn production challenges. But new disease and pest management tools may be tipping the balance in favor of locally-grown organic tree fruits.

The challenge of sustainable mountain development

A major international initiative will help to meet the challenge of agriculture and rural development in mountain regions where high levels of malnutrition and hunger persist, in a manner that protects the environment for present and future generations, FAO announced today.

Farming the Fungi Kingdom - Organically

Mushrooms should be a critical part of agriculture, they’re the recyclers,” says Thomas. “We’re growing all kinds of fibers and we’re throwing them out and dumping them in landfills. I can grow oyster mushrooms on shredded soy-ink newspaper.”

Compost tea research enters its second year

Study aims to shed light on current debates over the safety and efficacy of compost tea as an organic material.

Improving agricultural productivity

The Punjab government has decided to provide modern agricultural inputs to farming community. These inputs are diversified and include approved or certified seed, good quality water for irrigation, fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides.

Ali Akbar group launches new target agri-nucleus plan

It is first time in the history of Pakistan that the Ali Akbar Enterprises, one of the diversified national business group has launched its "target agri-nucleus" to provide complete facilities and guidance to farmers at their door steps regarding pesticides implications, usage of spray machines, seeds and fertilizers utilization.

Early warning on hazardous pesticides

The Rotterdam Convention aims to create a shared responsibility between countries that export and import toxic agro-chemicals....

Precision farming

Our levels of agricultural production and market demands for quality products seem to have reached a stage where conventional farming system alone may not help in improving the economic conditions of farmers.

Turtles; an amazing specie

Reptiles are the animals, which can lead a dual life; both in water and on land for example frogs, crocodiles, snakes, turtles, alligators and a long list that is of great interest.

Electricity from wind

Wind energy is the world’s fastest growing energy source and is one of the few alternative energy forms with the scale potential to reach grid penetration amounts of +30% of electrical supply.

Pollution control for agriculture

Of the many dangers that face our agrarian economy, water pollution poses a real threat to the fields of Pakistan.

Rural poverty: agri inputs, price policies

The price support policy was originally recommended by the US economist, John Kenneth Galbraith, to Pakistan's planning department in the mid 50's for only five years.

Fertilizer and the future

Around 100 million birds died or culled - international emergency meeting in Bangkok.

Bird flu in Asia: control campaigns need to continue

Around 100 million birds died or culled - international emergency meeting in Bangkok.

Fertilizer must to enhance vigorous growth of tea plants

Fertilizer is essential for vigorous growth of young tea plants because lack of insufficient supply of nutrients suffer healthy growth of the plants.The Tea crop is very responsive to nitrogen and the Japanese farmers use 600-1000 kg N/hs evidently not for the yield but for quality considerations.

Production of cotton, wheat
S M Naqi

Production of cotton has been reduced to 10m bales from 10.6m or more. In fact due to rising prices the exports of textile goods and yarn would be seriously affected. Consequently it is imperative that imports of cotton by textile mills be allowed from 0.5 million to 1.0 million bales.

How to Revolutionize the Dairy Sector?
Vetristo Zoyfro

In most of the developed countries, dairy sector usually comprised of large dairy farms i.e. commercialized farms, being full time enterprises. The farmers observe economic factors, thus keeps the animals on scientific lines. In Pakistan there are very less large commercialized dairy farms. Most of our farmers have small number of diary animals, may be landless or have small land. The major concern of our farmers is agriculture, thus they provide secondary importance to the animals. Most of our farmers posses no or very less education and have no scientific minds. They have adopted the livestock keeping as a part time hobby and usually take no interest for improvement of their activities on scientific lines.

What's wrong with my soybeans?
Your beautiful green field of soybeans has suddenly started to sprout yellow leaves, and you would like to sort out the cause. But field diagnosis is a complex task because many problems share similar symptoms. Even worse, we tend to look for the problems we are most familiar with, so a pathologist will see only disease, and an agronomist may see only nutrient deficiencies or herbicide damage.

Sugar industry problems and solution
M.A Siddiqui

For the last three years the sugar industry in Pakistan and specially in Sindh is facing an unprecedented crisis. This crisis has affected the three factors of production, raw material suppliers, employees and owners equally.The growers complain of not getting price which they demand, delay in payment, employees are not getting the benefits which they used to get and shareholders equity has eroded and converted into negative.

Potassium and its role in crop growth
Dr. S.M. Alam 
Dr. M.H. Naqvi

Potassium as an essential element is the backbone to a plant's life and it plays many vital roles in its nutrition. It increases root growth, improves drought resistance, enhances several enzyme functions , builds cellulose, reduces lodging, controls plant turgidity, maintains the selectivity and integrity of the cell membranes, helps translocation of sugars and starch, reduces water loss and wilting, reduces respiration, prevents energy losses, helps in protein synthesis and uplifts the protein content of plants, produces grain rich in starch and controls plants' diseases.

Convoluted cane and cotton policy
Syed Shahid Husain

Cotton is grown over three million hectares and production averages between 11 and 12 million bales per annum. Sugar cane is grown over a million hectares of the most fertile land and its annual production averages 50 to 55 million tonnes. Both these major crops appear to be faced with a perpetual crisis situation, most of it man-made.

Participatory research for agricultural development
 Hassnain Shah
Muhammad Azeem Khan

The Barani Village Development Project (BVDP) has a strong adaptive research and technology transfer base. It is co-financed by the 
Government of Pakistan and a loan from International Funding for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The project was started in 1999-2000 and is scheduled to run up to 2004-05.

Food and agriculture Organisation
The Food and agriculture Organisation was founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations. Today, FAO is the lead agency for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and rural development.

The use of Bt cotton to enhance crop yield
 Ijaz Ahmad Rao

Pakistan is an agriculture-based country. So agriculture remains the dominant sector of its economy. Pakistan is the world's fourth largest producer of cotton after China, the USA and India. Cotton, or white gold as it is aptly called, is grown for its lint and seed. Till the end of August cotton crop was in perfect condition in most part of the country, but in September many types of bollworm like Pink, Spotted and American attacked cotton in the Sindh and Punjab provinces.

Sustainable Developments In Agriculture
 Hadi Bux Leghari

With respect to coming generations all of us are obliged to deal with nature and the environment carefully. Only with a sustainable development can the needs of mankind be fulfilled in the future. This responsibility exists on a global scale - in all fields of life and economy.

Improving agri land management

Why has our agriculture not improved despite the adoption of various steps by the successive governments? A number of answers to this question have been given by experts and by inquiry committees and commissions, but the most appropriate and convincing seems to be the defective land tenure system controlling the management of land-holdings and farms.

Better seed basis for better cotton output
 Dr. G.H. Jamro

Cotton plays a vital role in the economy of the country, as this crop, besides providing raw material for textile, oil and allied industries, earns a major share of foreign exchange. Unfortunately, per hectare yield of seed cotton is still very low as compared to other developed cotton-growing countries.

Integrated agri management system imperative
Sindh Acting Governor Syed Muzaffar Hussain Shah has said that the integrated agriculture management system in the province is imperative for the development of agriculture sector in the province.

Sugar economy - an overview

In Pakistan, till today no research institution has been established for the development of sugarcane production and increase in the recovery rate of the crushed cane.

Production and export potentials of mangoes

Pakistan has made great strides to augment production of mangoes both volume-wise and variety/quality-wise over the years. The average mango production in 1975-80 was 569.7 thousand tonnes which has now spectacularly increased by over 77 percent to 10 lakh tonnes.

The dates industry in Pakistan
In almost all cultures and religions of the world dates are supposed to have special importance. For instance, in Muslims' Holy Book Qura'n, the fruit and its palm have been referred to more than 20 times. So as in many other religion dates are important on the religious occasions like Christmas and Devali.

Pakistan: the fastest rice producing country in Asia
Pakistan is located between 24 degree and 36 degree N latitude and 62 degree and 76 degree E longitude The wedge shaped country is bounded on the south of Arabian Sea, on the south-west by Iran, on the north-west by Afghanistan, on the north-west by the Republic of China, and on the east by India. Elevation ranges from sea level on the Arabian Sea to over 7600 meters in the north.

Basmati rice in Sindh
Arshad Khaliq

Thanks to the shortage of water, Sindh has been switching over to the basmati rice from the coarse rice. Sindh that has been known for the production Irri-6 and Irri-9 rice, has produced about 300,000 tonnes basmati rice this year.

Powering national growth through rice export
Since its inception in 1964, MATCO has been a trusted name for high quality Basmati Rice. MATCO's name has been abridged from its mother company M.A. Trading Company to retain the old name as a good omen.

Mauritius firm turns sugar into electricity
Nita Bhalla

Set in fields of luscious sugarcane, Mauritius's Belle Vue power plant looks strangely out of place, its huge boilers and cooling towers dominating the surrounding plantations.

GM seeds lower cotton quality in US
Shaukat Ali Bhambhro

Cotton is the world's most important fibre crop accounting for 48 per cent of global trade in natural and synthetic fibre. Cotton is an ancient crop. Fragments of woven cotton fabric were found by archaeologists in Mohan-jo-Daro indicate that early farmers in the Indus Valley had already domesticated wild cotton over 5000 years ago. Similarly cotton was used in Egypt in ancient times.

The truth about PDF's poverty concerns
M. Ziauddin

The three-day long sitting in Islamabad last week of the Pakistan Development Forum (PDF), a substitute for the Aid-to-Pakistan Consortium, looked at poverty in Pakistan from almost every angle and thousands of words were used describing and dissecting its causes and prescribing all kinds of panaceas for eliminating it.

Relief package for farmers
Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, while unveiling the plaque of Zarai Taraqqiati Bank as a newly constituted public limited company, announced a new package of incentives for the borrowers of the bank in the agriculture sector.

The egg industry: production, processing, packaging
M. M. Nazri

Eggs are one of the few foods that are used throughout the world; thus the egg industry is an important segment of the world food industry. Eggs are an important commodity in international trade. The principal egg producing countries of the world are U.S.A., former USSR, Japan, U.K., Germany, France, South Africa etc.

South African farmers get more from GM cotton
Toby Reynolds

Genetically modified crops have advocates and detractors, but for South African cotton farmer T.J. Buthelezi, the technology is a godsend. Sheltering from the sun in the shade of a tree which his Hlokohloko cotton farmers association uses as a meeting place, Buthelezi describes how the use of insect-resistant Bt cotton has made his life easier and far more profitable.

Reducing evolution period of wheat
Sardar Riaz A. Khan

Wheat is the major staple food crop of Pakistan and occupies nearly 38 per cent of the total cultivated area of the country. Evolution of high yielding wheat varieties by the wheat breeders has brought a green revolution in the country which has now changed from a chronic importer of wheat to an exporter during the last couple of years thus saving its annual import ranging between 2-4 million tons causing heavy drain on our national exchequer.

Dewormers of Plant Origin - A Scientific Evidence
Muhammad Lateef and Zafar Iqbal

Sheep plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan. The major share of national sheep population comes from the small flocks maintained by the landless families or small land holders in the villages. These sheep flocks are the main stay of the livelihood of these people. They sell sheep to meet their day-to-day needs of life.

Business of roadside nurseries
Imtiaz Mateen

Roadside nurseries on green belt areas are a new phase for Karachites. About two years ago, the city government floated that idea after which the nurseries have started to grow like mushrooms. According to the city government, 115 temporary nurseries are working on some of the city's main roads. Some nurseries have opened with town and union councils' permission also.

Nutrient Cycling and (EM) Effective-Microorganism
Hadi Bux Leghari

The nutrient elements undergo several natural transformations and interactions in soils and the environment. These processes are important because most plants are only able to take up certain chemical forms of each nutrient.

It is time for looking at farmers' needs
Zafar Samdani

While the federal government has come up with an approximate size of output for the current wheat crop, much of it still in the fields, it is time for the authorities to look at the farmer's needs and ensure that they receive official price for their produce rather than for basking in the dubious glory of concocted or wish-based statistics.

Gwadar port: ideal site for export-oriented industrial parks
Rashid Soorty

Since President Pervez Musharraf performed the ground-breaking ceremony for the development of the long-awaited Gwadar port on March 22, 2002 and the Chinese participation in the development of the port and their contribution in phase-I has created a keen interest not only among Pakistani entrepreneurs but also in other parts of the world, particularly Central Asia, Afghanistan, China, Japan, Singapore.

Poverty reduction through crop-price mechanism
M.Shafi Niaz

The country's population is estimated to be around 150 million growing at a rate of 2.1 percent a year. Of this about 97 million or 65 percent resides in the rural areas. The agricultural sector employs about 19 million people.

Shaping the future of agriculture
M.Shafi Niaz

The country's population is estimated to be around 150 million growing at a rate of 2.1 percent a year. Of this about 97 million or 65 percent resides in the rural areas. The agricultural sector employs about 19 million people.

Policy measures to boost export
The federal minister for commerce, Humayun Akhtar Khan, while addressing the members of Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI) the other day made some important observations on a number of issues relating mainly to the country's exports.

Giving boost to rice exports

Rice is one of the most important crops of Pakistan by having a unique position being both as a cash and food crop at the same time. It feeds millions of persons as well as earns valuable foreign exchange for the country.

Agricultural development through proper marketing

Among other things, agricultural development in most of the agriculturally advanced countries has taken place by streamlining the marketing of produce. Agricultural marketing is considered an important part of the general process of agricultural development.

I Tech use in agri research must
Application of computers and Information Technology for resource sharing has immense potential to serve the mankind in a variety of areas including agricultural research.

Advice for kinoo export to Philippines
Several containers carrying kinoo consignments had been detained at Manila Port by the Bureau of Customs, Philippines. The consignments were packed in wooden crates, which is prohibited in Philippines, and arrived without proper documentation for fitness by unauthentic exporter from Pakistan.

Care of Foot and Importance of Showing in working
Lt Col Muhammad Ashraf

When the horse was living in its natural environment its hooves provided adequate protection for the underlying sensitive structures of the foot. As soon as man used the horse to carry loads or pull vehicles he must had observed that during certain seasons of the year, when working on hard and rough surfaces, the hooves wore away more quickly than they were renewed, exposing the sensitive structures which resulted in pain and lameness.

Chotiari reservoir, an integral part of drain project
Colonel Muhammad Safir Tarar

The Chotiari Water Reservoir Project, built as an integral part of the Left Bank Outfall Drain Project Stage-I, is the first Wapda project of the Jamali government.

Chief Minister NWFP approved Livestock plan
Dr.M.Subhan Qureshi

The Chief Minister NWFP, Mr.Akram Khan Durrani has approved the Chief Minister’s Livestock Development Plan prepared by Dr.M.Subhan Qureshi, Livestock Expert. The Chief Minister appreciated the efforts of the author and wished that this multifaceted joint venture may prove as a tool for revival of the provincial economy.

Utility of Horses and Mules at National and International
Brigadier Khalid Hemeed Chughtai

Pakistan is a country of horse lovers and despite the switch to modern means of transportation, horse is an animal seen well integrated into every day life. While, the traditional Yaka (Tonga) or two wheel carriage is on the decline, there is no city or town in Pakistan except perhaps Islamabad the Capital city, where horse driven carts are not seen. These carts are reminiscent of a glorious past of the horse in this part of world.

Wheat in sharp focus
The last meeting of the Economic Co-ordination Committee of the Cabinet (ECC) was marked, among other things, by its understandable focus on the next wheat crop. Wheat sowing is reported to have been completed but in a slightly smaller area, as compared to the previous year; it had to be so for a number of reasons.

Katzara Dam, a project for the next generation
Ahmad Khan Bhatti

Katzara Dam (Skardu Dam) near the Skardu town has been projected in a section of the press as the world's largest dam having a potential of 35 MAF storage capacity and 15,000 mw of hydel power.

Indiscreet use of fertiliser injurious to crops

There was a time when our farmers were pretty hesitant to use chemical fertiliser. Public agencies concerned with agriculture had to undertake forceful campaign to popularise its use by demonstrating practically its usefulness to increase production of crops by leaps and bounds.

Eid-ul-Azha: the festival of sacrifice
M Shafique Ahmed

Sacrificing animals on the occasion of Eid-ul-Azha on the 10th, 11th and 12th Zilhij is the fulfilment of 'Sunnat-i-Ibrahimi,' when one night Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) dreamed that 'Allah' had ordered him to sacrifice his beloved son, Ismail (AS), who was dearest, as he was born in his old age. 'Allah' just wanted to test the feelings of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS).

Promotion of tobacco and products export
Khan Faraz

Complexities of export of tobacco and its manufactures are well known. The peculiar feature of tobacco trade is that USA, being an important exporter of manufactured tobacco, is the leading importer of tobacco needed for blending purposes.

Marketing of non-farm products in rural areas

Before describing the marketing mechanism of non-farm products in rural areas, it is necessary first to name and identify these. In the context of rural development, we have to decide which should be termed non-farm products.

Use of IT in Saarc countries
Ali Ashraf Khan 

The world's famous mountain range of Himalayan, Karakoram and Hindukush are situated in the SAARC region, which as a matter of fact forms a natural bondage between the members of SAARC.

Export incentive for pharmaceutical industry
The duty drawback facility that the government has allowed to the pharmaceutical firms in the country can certainly help enhance prospects of selling the country's pharmaceutical products in the world market.

Banana marketing
Dr Ali Muhammad Khushk &
Aslam Memon

Bananas, being popular and cheap, are cultivated throughout the year. The fruit is economical and hygienic, as the thick covering provides protection against bacteria and contamination.

Boosting rice exports in a different way
Pervaiz Ishfaq Rana 

Pakistan will play host to the Cricket World Cup participants, though not in literal sense, as this right goes to the host country. But, it will play a role of hospitality, of course with a traditional touch.

lleviation of poverty through Agri development
M.H. Panhwar

More than 50 per cent of the people of Pakistan live in rural areas and more than 90 per cent of them are involved in agriculture directly or indirectly by providing services to farmers. Services providers include all artisans, technicians, and transporters, all of whom cater for farmers' requirements.

Psychological Benefits of Gardening
Haider Abbas

In fact, even the sight of a few trees, the view from a window at home or at work, can provide satisfaction. Similarly, landscape areas can also be a source of satisfaction; weather or not one participate in their maintenance.

Technology of Beneficial Microorganisms
Dr. Tahir Hussain

EM stands for Effective Microorganisms and was developed at the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa Japan in the early 1980's, by a distinguished Professor of Horticulture, Prof. Dr. Terou Higa. He is a Horticulturist by training and had worked on the intensive use of agrochemicals.

Lawns Enhance the Environment
Haider Abbas

Our urban surroundings have become increasingly artificial because of concrete and asphalt used in the construction of featureless buildings and ugly transportation system. As a result, residents of the cities are deprived of inner satisfaction and soothness that one gets being close to nature. 

Role of Vitamins in Immune Response in Poultry
Dr. Muhammad Siddique

Vitamins are an essential component of a well-balanced diet and their major function is the metabolism and utilization of nutrients. The recommended dietary inclusion of vitamins is aimed at preventing clinical deficiencies by administration of specific vitamins. Under commercial conditions, dietary nutrients are considered adequate when economic parameters such as growth and reproduction are adequately taken care.

Pros and cons of privatisation methodology
In his paper read at the 18th annual general meeting of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) last week, a former federal secretary, Akhtar Hassan Khan, described the entire process of privatisation in Pakistan as a fruitless exercise and also pleaded for removing strategic state enterprises from the future list of privatisation.

What Are Transgenic Plants?
A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. The inserted gene sequence (known as the transgene) may come from another unrelated plant, or from a completely different species: transgenic Bt corn, for example, which produces its own insecticide, contains a gene from a bacterium.

Poultry industry shows marked resilience
The Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) has virtually become a "junction" for promoting agriculture, livestock and other allied fields owing to innovations based on nuclear technique and research in various disciplines.

How Do You Make A Transgenic Plant?
The Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) has virtually become a "junction" for promoting agriculture, livestock and other allied fields owing to innovations based on nuclear technique and research in various disciplines.

Expert advises utilisation of saline and sodic lands
Considering the increasing demand for food, fuel, and fibre for the increasing population, it would not be advisable to leave saline and sodic lands unutilised. Dr S M Alam of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture Tando Jam stated this while talking to Business Recorder.


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• Do you want to grow a disease free flock ?
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• Neem The wonder tree
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• The Use of gypsum for sodic soils
• Rural and wildlife conservation
• EC alerts fish exporters
• Quality wool production

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