These are small brown colored
insects. They suck the sap from the leaves and branches
and cause great damage to trees and reduction of yield.
Aphid attack is severe during Feb and April. Use Dizenon
40% or Eldrine 20%, 1 kg in 450 litres of water. Insecticides
should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the
Citrus Leaf Minor:
the leaves. the attacked leaves become curled and deformed.
If causes great losses in growth and yield. Use Malathion
57 or Matasystox 50% at the rate of 500 grams in 450
litres of water per acre for its control.
This also attacks fresh leaves.
It can be controlled effectively by using Malathion
This attacks the fruits and causes great losses in yield
and quality. This pest can also be controlled by using
Malathion 57%. This should not be applied within 6 weeks
of marketing the fruit.
These are sucking types of insects and cause
great damage to Kinnow and sweet oranges in Punjab.
They can survive throughout the year. Use Parathion
or Malathion at the rate of 752 grams in 450 litres
of water per acre for its effective control.
This is a fungus which attacks the root of the trees.
Its attack is severe in poorly drained soils. The affected
tree gradually dries up. Remove the soil from around
the affected trees without damaging the roots and improve
on farm drainage for its effective control.
This disease is caused by nutritional deficiencies.
The branches and fruits of the affected trees start
drying and the tree becomes uneconomical to maintain.
Apply a balanced dose of Bordeaux Mixture 450 after
cutting affected branches from the trees.
This is a bacterial disease. It attacks leads
and the fruits. It forms canker like spots on the leaves
and stems of the fruit causing great reduction in yield
and quality of the fruit. There is no effective treatment
for this disease except to cut and remove the affected
trees and spray Formaldehyde at the spots from where
the diseased trees have been removed.
Picking of citrus fruits is done almost throughout
the year. The fruit should be picked when it is fully
ripe. It will not develop taste or sugar in storage
after picking. The best method is to pick the individual
fruit by holding it in one hand and cutting the stalk
with a knife and collecting it into boxes or baskets
to avoid injury to the stem. The average yield expected
from different types of fruits in various species are
500 to 1000 fruit per tree.
Pakistan is blessed with
a climate ideally suited to the farming of all kinds
of fruits - rich in taste and juicy. Farmers have been
developing new varieties of fruit by grafting one exotic
variety with other.
Season of Kino in Pakistan starts
from December and last till April. Kinnow is very delicious
in taste and if treated with proper fungicide and wax
and careful handing and storage of Kinnow at about 4
Degree Centigrade can retain it's freshness until 2
Pakistan is one of the few countries in the
world where some of the varieties of fruits grown in
cool temperate climate such as apples, pears, plums
and cherries while in warm temperate climate such as
apricots, grapes, pomegranates and melon and in tropical
and subtropical climate such as bananas, mangoes, dates,
guava and citrus so the fruits are usually available
throughout the year.
Nature has blessed Pakistan with
ideal climate for growing a wide range of delicious
fruits and large varieties of vegetables. Over the years,
Pakistani experts have developed unique stains of exotic
fruit varieties unmatched for their rich flavor and
taste. From the selection of the finest fruits grown,
a reasonable quantity is processed and properly packed
for sales and consumption in local market and exporting
Pakistan exported 268,741 tones of fruits worth
US$ 79.83 million during 2000-01, while the export of
vegetables stood at $22.50 million. Out of the total
exports of fruits and vegetables the share of mangoes
was 53,443 tonnes valuing $16.54 million, showing an
increase of 43 per cent over the 1999-00.
is the main contributor to GDP either directly or indirectly
in the form of agro-based industries. The production
of fruits and vegetables is not fully utilized and after
their domestic consumption a major part is wasted due
to lack of infrastructure, storage and processing facilities.
The wastage quantity can be utilized by just streamlining
and regulating the system from grower to export markets.
Pakistan produces large varieties of mangoes, its production
has increased from 908 thousand tonnes in 1995-96 to
937 thousand tonnes in 1999-00. World production of
mangoes stood at 19 million tons in 1995, which rose
to 23.8 million tonnes in 1999, registering an increase
of 24.75 per cent over the five years. Philippines and
China have achieved much over 100 per cent increase
in mango production during that period. Thailand is
another country, which has also registered a significant
increase. Rise in Pakistan's annual mango production
during 1995-99 is only 3.4 per cent. Our share in global
mango production in 1999 is 3.8 per cent.
Pakistani kinoos and apples are also in great demand
in the international market. Balochistan produces about
480,000 tones of apples annually but only 3,000 tones
were exported last year. About 30 per cent apples wasted
every year in Balochistan only. Recently the government
has given approval for the establishment of treatment
plant in Quetta. While two plants are about to start
working in Karachi. It is estimated that after starting
of these treatment plants export of apples would be
increased to about 20,000 tons per annum. There are
good investment opportunities for the private sector
to establish processing units near the fruits and vegetable
growing areas. This would not only prevent wastage but
would also help to earn foreign exchange.
also bright prospects for exporting fruit juices and
pulps. By establishing modern plants, Pakistan can earn
foreign exchange three times more than that being earned
by export of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Sunny winters in Pakistan yield a large variety of citrus
fruits. The juicy kinno is a unique hybrid of two varieties
of California Oranges. It has a soft skin which is easy
to peel and has a lovely fragrance.
Pakistan is fortunate in having great diversity
in its soil and in its ecological and climatic conditions,
ranging from extremely warm to temperate, to very cold.
This enables the country to grow many kinds of trees,
plants, shrubs, vines and creepers which yield a large
variety of fruits and vegetables.