max (L.) Merrill] is one of the most important oilseed crops in
the world. It contains 18 to 22 percent oil and is highly desirable
in the diet and have 40 to 42 percent of good quality protein.
Therefore, it is the best source of protein and oil and truly claim
the title of the meat/oil that grows on plants. Generally, it is
used in the food industry for flour, oil, margarine, cookies,
biscuit, candy, milk, vegetable cheese, lecithin and many other
products. At present, the United States of America has the largest
area under its cultivation. Soybean is also grown in other parts of
the world including Brazil, Peoples Republic of China, Argentina,
Indonesia, Korea and Japan. In Pakistan, soybean has suffered a
setback and has therefore, not been able to attain a respectable
position among the oilseed crops. Its cultivation remained limited
to a very small acreage and showed a declining trend.
Expansion of the area
of soybean in those parts of the region which are idle or not used
at certain seasons of the year could produce soybean in the country.
Thus, there is a large scope to increase the area under this crop
- Dobari lands in
Sindh and the area of Punjab which often lie idle between two
summer crops of rice from September/October to May every year
for one or the other reason.
- Cotton fallow
areas where no crop is grown between two crops of cotton from
December to May.
- Riverine lands
which are flooded during summer from June to September but are
dry during the winter from November to May.
- Dry land (barani)
areas which are available in part of summer during the monsoon
when moisture is abundant and most of the land is left fallow
for wheat sowing in November. This land is available from June
- Area under fall
(septemberber) and spring (March) planted sugarcane is available
for intercropping of soybean because short season soybean grow
without affecting slow growing sugarcane plants.
Soybean has a
vast potential as Spring (Zaid Rabi) and Autumn (Kharif) crop
cultivation. Throughout the country cotton and rice 8.4 and 2.10
million hectares, respectively and 30 percent of this area remains
fallow after each crop which could be brought under soybean
plantation. The results of past research revealed that soybean can
give reasonable yield in Punjab, Sindh and high yield in the
foothill areas of NWFP. In addition, soybean also improve the soil
status for ensuring crops of cotton and rice in the irrigated areas
of Punjab and Sindh. Soybean is a very successful crop both in
irrigated and rainfed areas without clashing any major crop like
rice, cotton and wheat. Thus, the area which remains fallow can be
Rice Soybean Rice
soybeans with corn, sorghum, cotton, or sugarcane
potential yield of soybean following recommendations have been made
on the basis of results of experiments conducted by NARC scientists.
can be grown successfully under a wide range of temperatures. The
minimum and maximum soil temperatures for germination of soybean
seeds are approximately 5 oC and 40 oC.
Irrigations (depending upon rains).oC, respectively. The
optimum temperature for rapid vegetative growth rate is about 30oC
whereas, temperature above 40oC has adverse effect on
flower initiation and pod retention.
Moisture availability is particularly critical during two periods of
soybean germination and pod filling. However, availability of
adequate moisture during the pod filling period is critical. Water
stress during floral initiation, pollination, and seed development
may greatly reduce the seed yield significantly.
Latitude and time of year (sun declination) are the determents of
photoperiod and temperature. Soybean is short day plant (SDP) where
flowering is promoted by day length shorter than a critical maximum
varies among varieties. Actual controlling factor is the length of
uninterrupted darkness or nyctoperiod. Photo periodically sensitive
varieties of soybean are adapted to a narrow latitude range (200-250
SOIL AND FERTILIZER
Soybean can be grown on almost all well-drained soils, however, crop
is more productive on fertile loam soils. Soybean is not sensitive
to acidic soils as many other legumes. Soil with pH 6-7 is suitable
for crop growth. In this pH range, adequate calcium and magnesium
are normally available. For efficient production, soil must be
managed properly to allow optimum uptake of water and nutrients.
Fertilizer application is important in the soybean production and
has great effect on yield. Usually 25:50:50 (NPK) kg ha-1
at the time of sowing gives higher yields. Fertilizers are usually
broadcasted during seed-bed preparation. Under conditions fertilizer
dose may vary according to the soil fertility and status. Soybean in
rotation with other crops (i.e. cotton, rice and wheat) often
provide some nitrogen for the following crops and may reduce the
need for pesticides by limiting certain disease or insect problems.
Adding N fertilizer
to soybeans usually decreases nodulation and results in smaller
amounts of N being symbiotically fixed. Therefore, nitrogen is
recommended only when adequate nodulation is not achieved. However,
supplemental N should not be applied within 30 days of emergence but
should be applied before flowering, which is usually early March to
spring crop and late July to autumn crop depending on maturity group
of a variety.
Two to three ploughings followed by plankings are sufficient to get
proper tilth. This will improve moisture conservation of the soil
which is required for soil-seed interaction, good seed germination,
emergence, growth and development.
The nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobia) that lives on soybean
roots in nodules are not native to most soils. The best way to
introduce this bacteria is to inoculate the seed. Once, introduced,
the rhizobia population remains active in the soil for a long time.
In the presence of the appropriate inoculant ofRhizobium
japonicum, more nodules are formed on roots of soybean plant
which can fix atmospheric nitrogen from the air that is almost as
effective as nitrogen applied as fertilizer to promote growth and
development of the plant.
Method of Inoculation:
Inoculum is a black powder containing nitrogen fixing bacteria which
are mixed with ground peat or some similar carrier and applied on
seed just before planting time. Seeds are moistened with
concentrated sugar solution, inoculant is applied @ 1250 gm per 100
kg seeds and then mixed thoroughly to have a uniform coating of
inoculum on the seeds. This process should be done in shady place.
The use of fungicide in case of seed treatment, may interfere with
inoculated seed and with symbioses of Rhizobium-soybean system.
Thus, compatible fungicides (i.e. Benlate and Dithane Z-78 (Zineb)
with no toxicity to Rhizobia should be used. Treat seed immediately
before planting and use inoculum dose little higher than
Different soybean varieties of American origin were selected after
conducting a large number of trials. These varieties are NARC-1,
NARC-2, Ajmeri, FS-85, Malakand-96, Swat-84 and Kharif-93 have been
developed by the scientists of Oilseed Programme, NARC, Islamabad
and their provincial counter parts.
Variation in yield loss due to delay in the planting is the result
of variation in weather and its influence on disease, plant height,
flower abortion, amount of vegetative growth, etc. Therefore,
planting date is considered to be the one of the important factor
for maximum crop yield. Late planting may result in significant
decrease in seed yield. The optimum planting time for different
areas along with suitable varieties is presented below.
Time of planting
and suitable soybean varieties for different areas during autumn and
week of July
July to Mid Aug
June to Mid July
Ajmeri and Kharif-93
week of January to 1st
week of Feb.
NARC-2, FS-85, Williams-82
January to 1st week of
week of March to mid
Seed @ 40 kg acre-1 planted at a depth of 3 to 5 cm with
30 to 45 cm row spacing gives optimum population of 120,000 to
130,000 plants per acre. As much as 20 to 24 plants per meter of row
are generally satisfactory. However, within a wide range of plant
populations for a particular row spacing, soybean yield do not vary
significantly. However, low populations result in low poding height
and excessive branches but good lodging resistance. Conversely, high
plant populations result in increased lodging, high poding height
and less branching. Generally, soybeans in narrow rows are higher
yielding because they capture more of the sun's energy which drives
photosynthetic machinery of the plant. However, wide rows are used
if the varieties are tall and bushy type.
Method of Sowing:
The method of sowing should meet three objectives i) adequate and
uniform depth of seed placement, ii) adequate seed numbers and
uniform distribution, iii) sufficient soil-seed contact for
germination. Under, existing conditions, soybean must be planted
with single row cotton drill or tractor drill because of their
consistency in producing good stands.
Number of irrigations varies with climatic conditions, management
practices and length of growing season. Moisture stress during
flowering, pod filling and seed development stages reduces yield.
Usually 6-7 irrigations are required for spring soybean and 2-3
irrigations for autumn crop depending upon the rains. Therefore,
irrigation must be given at the following stages:
Weeds complete with soybeans for nutrient's, moisture and light and
thus, reduce yield. The most effective measure for developing weed
control in soybean vary; depending on types of weeds, degree of weed
infestation, soil type, weather patterns, crop rotation, tillage
methods, row spacing and equipments available. A good weed control
program should includes combination of preventive, cultural,
mechanical and chemical practices.
All these measures taken to prevent the introduction and spread of
weeds include the use of weed free crop seed.
Crop rotation reduce the weeds populations of certain weeds common
to a particular crop. It results in improved crop yield, quality,
improved soil conditions, and reduces the chance of plant disease
and insect infestation.
Deep and dry ploughing gives a substantial control of perennial
weeds. By tillage method, weeds are buried with soil, thrown over
and with disruption of the ultimate relationship between the weed,
crop and soil.
Control: Hand weeding is the
most common practice and used employed by the farmers, two weedings
are recommenced during the growing period. Mechanical weeding by
rotary weeder control the annual weeds effectively and economically.
The experimental results have shown that proper use of pre-emergence
herbicides i.e. Pendimethalin 8(Stomp), Trifluralin (Treflan) and
Oxadiazon (Ronstar) can be applied after planting before the
germination of soybean. These have been found very effective in
controlling a wide range of grasses and broad leaf weeds.
doses and time of application
||4.5 lit ha-1
||990-1480 ml ha-1
||3.2-3.7 lit ha-1
Control : This involves the
use of two or more above mentioned weed control techniques. The
combined use of more than one weed control technique is
advantageous, because one technique rarely achieves complete
eradication of weeds.
About 35 diseases of economic importance are known to affect soybean
throughout the world. Diseases can reduce yield from 10 to 30
percent, depending upon the severity, pathogen and weather
conditions. In Pakistan only 6 major diseases have been observed and
these are anthracnose, charcoal rot, purple seed stain, pod and stem
blight and bacterial blight/pustule. Careful diagnosis is very
important for the disease control strategies, because more than one
pathogen or a complex may be responsible for final loss in yield and
seed quality. Thus, the collection of samples is essential
throughout the growing season.
programme should include the following methods:
Plant quality and
healthy seed, free of mechanical damage.
seed soybeans as soon as they are mature.
planting in wet and poorly drained soils to reduce chances of
the development of soil borne diseases (Root rot).
crop free from weeds because they may be the hosts to any
should be stored at 8 to 10 percent moisture at 15oC
temperature to have more seed viability.
Plough down crop
with non-leguminous crop.
before the soil temperature rises.
population, increase row width and avoid high fertility to
prevent a closed canopy, improve aeration and increase drying in
i) Seed Treatment:
To protect from soil born diseases, seed should be treated before
planting with one of the available fungicides; Captan, Dithane M-45,
Benlate and Tecto @ 1.5-2 gms per 1 kg seed.
ii) Foliar Spray:
At the appearance of disease symptoms, after field survey foliar
spray with one of the systemic fungicides, Dithane M-45 @ 1 kg ha-1,
Benlate and Tecto @ 120-150 gm ha-1 dissolved in 250
litre of water should be done after 10 to 15 days interval. This
process should be repeated 2-3 times depending upon the severity of
resistance varieties or least susceptible cultivars and avoid
tall, viney cultivars that may lodge.
control; combines high tolerate cultivar, good drainage,
complete tillage, seed treatment and rotation with cereals.
Insects and their
Major insects damage
soybean crops are stem fly, white fly, green stink bug, cut worm and
larvae. Insects attack on all parts of the soybean plant and feed
throughout the growing season. Certain insect can also provide
access for disease organism and or transmit them directly to plants.
Therefore, understanding the relationships between the insect and
the crop will enable farmers to manage pests much better. A new
practice to control insect attack is based on knowledge of the
economic injury levels of the consequential insects. The economic
injury levels is the population of insects that is capable of
producing an amount of economic damage which is at least equal to
the cost of controlling the insects. Wise monitoring of major
insects is required in order to effectively make decision relative
to insecticide application.
predators, parasites and pathogens occur in soybean fields that help
in keeping population of pest species below economic levels.
However, experience has shown us that beneficial insects and
pathogens do not do a complete job, and that chemical control
soybeans tend to receive the majority of the overwhelming adult of
flies and bugs, while late planted will alleviate some of the
problems with these two insects and cutworm. Therefore, it is still
more economical to plant early for high yields and control any
potential insect problems with insecticides than it is to plant late
for insect control.
For cutworm and
termite apply powder of BHC @ 7 kg per hectare or Dieldrin 20 EC
@ 5-7 litres ha-1 mixed with irrigation water.
For other insects
especially flies, thrips and larvae spray; Dimecron 100% @ 600
ml ha-1 or Methyl-Parathion 50 percent @ 800 to 1200
ml ha-1 Somicidin 20 EC @ 400 to 600 ml ha-1
dissolved in 250 litre of water, if attack is severe spray two
times with an interval of 8-10 days.
Threshing: Soybean matures in
92 to 120 days depending upon growing season and the variety that
was planted. Senescence is the decline in chemical activity
associated with aging of plants and maturation is only loss of water
from plants or seeds which are physiologically mature. Seeds are
physiologically mature when they are no longer synthesizing food.
Physiological loss of chlorophyll and acceleration of senescence is
characteristics of dry, dehisent fruits (soybean pods). Ethylene and
abscisic acid play an important role in abscission and dehiscence of
pod and often capsule dry fruits (soybean). Oil and storage protein
have reached their maximum dry weight. At this stage seed moisture
is 45 to 55 percent, pods and stems are yellow, and leaves are
yellow or have dropped. Delay in harvesting not only reduces seed
quality but it also reduces harvesting efficiency and increases
shattering losses. As soon as the pods are dry enough to open
easily, harvest it, thresh after drying within 7-10 days and
threshed seed must be cleaned before storage or marketing.
Number of pods per plant is a function of spacing and intercepted
light while leaf N is a principal factor in determining soybean seed
yield. The average farmers yield ranges from 1500 to 2500 kg ha-1.
At Agricultural Research Institutes under high level management
practices the yields range from 2500 to 3500 kg ha-1.
Well dried seed should be stored at about 8 to 10 percent moisture
content and 15o C in tropical regions. To maintain dried
seed at a low moisture level, two practices are feasible. these are:
i) To grow soybean
for seed in an area where relative humidity is low.
ii) To use moisture
proof containers for seed storage.
For long-term benefit
and effectiveness, air conditioned storage in tropical and
subtropical areas are more suitable. Adequately air-conditioned
storage should be maintained at a temperature of 20oC to
22oC or less and a relative humidity of 60 percent or
less when the storage period is of eight-nine months duration. Poor
quality soybeans seeds will deteriorate quickly in storage than high
quality seeds. In addition, the practice of "Carrying
over" soybean seeds should be discouraged because this crop
does not store well and the quality of seed quickly diminishes
during the second over wintering period.
Availabilty of seed:
A good quality soybean seed is available with the following
1. Oilseed Program,
National Agric. Res. Centre, Islamabad.
2. Pakistan Oilseed
Development Board, Islamabad.
3. Punjab Seed
Corporation, Sahiwal and Khanewal.
Development Authority, Peshawar.
5. Sindh Agricultural
Supply and Services Organization, Hyderabad
Beside Government Agencies (PSC, SASSO and ADA) private agencies
like National Feeds and Wali Oil Mills, Sheikhupura has been
directed to procure the entire produce from the farmers @ Rs.410 per
Advantages of soybean
duration season and farmer could utilize rice, cotton, and
rainfed fallow areas.
Well fit in the
existing cropping system without clashing with major crops.
dictates crop sequence, but where choices are available,
soybeans should follow crops other than soybean like cereals
that make better use of the nitrogen provided by legume crops.
provides good quality protein which is high in one of the
limiting amino acids lysine, and is useful as a supplement to
consists of 85 percent unsaturated fatty acid from which two
essential fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acids, not
synthesized by the human are provided, therefore, soya oil is
good for better health and heart patients.
QUICK TIPS TO OBTAIN
ploughings with two planking.
to end July
(Zaid Rabi Crop)
to 1st week of February
week of Jan. to 1st week of Feb
and 2nd week of March
100-120 kg ha-1
with seed drill.Row to row distance spring 30 cm, kharif 45
cm,Plant to plant distance 3-5 cm
(NPK) kg ha-1at the time of planting.
7 irrigations for spring and 3 to 4 irrigations for autumn
crop (depending upon the rains).
must be applied at the following stages
NARC-2, Williams-82, Ajmeri, Malakand-96, Kharif-93, Swat-84
Cotton-Soybean-Cotton ( irrigated), Wheat -Soybean-Wheat (rainfed)