PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN
introduced as oilseed crop in Pakistan in 1960. It is mainly
cultivated in Sindh and Baluchistan Provinces. During 1997-98, total
area under this crop was 1594 ha with production of 1129 tones.
Safflower research work was started in 1976 at National Agricultural
Research Centre, Islamabad. Being drought tolerant crop it is
recommended for planting in rainfed areas. In Sindh it is cultivated
on residual moisture after rice. Safflower seed contains 26-37 %
oil. Its oil is most popular for its high quality.
Selection and Preparation
Light clay to heavy
clay land with good drainage system is most appropriate for this
crop. To get more production, at least one to two ploughings are
sufficient. For deep ploughing mold boald (MB) plough can be used.
After this cultivator and planker are used to make the land even and
a. Canal irrigated
area October 20, to November 30
b. Barani area
October 15, to November 15
Like other Oilseed
crops, it must be sown in lines. In barani areas, line to line
distance should be 60 centimeter (2 feet) and in irrigated areas, 45
centimeter (1.5 feet). In proper moisture conditions, sowing may be
done with hand or wheat drill.
In barani areas the
recommended seed rate varies from 6 to 7 kg and in irrigated areas 8
to 9 kg. If the crop is cultivated by broad cost method then use 20
% more seed (9-11 kg/ha).
When the plants
become 10 centimeter high, thinning may be done with hands. After
thinning plant to plant distance should be 10 to 15 centimeter so
that the required plant population may be maintained in the field.
Plant population should be 167000 (60 cm x 10 cm) and 111,000 (60 cm
x 15 cm) per hectare.
In the beginning,
growth of safflower is slow so that the field should be clean from
weeds to have good plant establishment. In case of line sowing
Rotary hoe may be used once or twice before flower initiation.
In Pakistan, the
commercial varieties of safflower are Gilla, US-10, S-208 (spiny)
Thori-78 and Pawari-95 (spineless). These varieties are also
recommended for dry areas of Frontier Provence. Oilseeds Research
Programme of PARC evaluated a large number of varieties in National
Uniform Yield Trials during last 3-4 years and results show that the
BI-9740 and BI-4059 are best in yield in Potohar Region.
per acre Time of Application
a. Canal irrigated
One bag One bag at sowing and bed preparation
b. Barani One bag One
bag at seed bed preparation
Due to its deep root
zone, safflower crop can get moisture from the lower surface. During
season 2-3 irrigation are sufficient. First irrigation should be
given 1-1/2 to 2 months after germination; second irrigation at
flowering time and last irrigation should be given at the seed
10. Diseases of
and Remularia Leaf Blight
In humid season, due
to these both diseases brown and blackish spots appear on leaves. In
swear attack of disease the spots become closer to each other
resulting in the whole plant damage.
This disease spreads
due to high moisture in the air. Use of healthy seeds is very
essential to minimize the attack of the disease.
In the middle and
northern areas of Pakistan, attack of rust is low in early days. In
late sowing crop the attack is swear. To overcome this disease, crop
rotation may be helpful. Seed should be treated with Thrim @ 3g/kg
of seed before planting.
Rot and Wilt Diseases
This disease is swear
in canal irrigated areas. In particular, when the temperature is
highly and more irrigation is given to the crop. To overcome this
disease, safflower should not be cultivated at one place. Field
should be leveled so that water should not stand in the field to
avoid root rot.
Control by Spray
Dimetholate-Ec-40 @ 0.75 l/ha Sind early or
Phosphamidon @ 500 g/ha planting
Thrips, Lygus Thiodon
Ec-35 @ 1.0 l/ha or All cultivated
Dimecron Ec-100 @ 0.3-0.5 l/ha area
Leaf borer or
Novacron Ec-40 @ 1.25 l/ha
Thrashing and Storage
When the leaves
become brownish and seeds come out of the capsules by rubbing with
fingers the crop is ready for harvest. In dry weather the crop
should be harvested in the morning or after noon. After the
harvesting the crop should be dried at one place. Seed should be
collected after thrashing with sticks from the dry capsules and
clean them. Crop can be cut with harvester and thrashed with
threader. Seed should be dried at 8-10 % moisture before storage.
Ghee Corporation has
set many purchase points in various cities for the sale of safflower
produce. The sale prices of safflower is Rs=350/- per 40 kilogram.
Agriculture Research Council