PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
In Pakistan after
cotton, rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of oil
in Pakistan. It is cultivated over an area of 307,000 hectares with
annual production of 233,000 tonnes and contribute about 17% to the
domestic production of edible oil.
Rapeseed and mustard
seed is a rich source of oil and protein. The seed has oil as high
as 46-48 percent, Whole seed meal has 43.6 percent protein. Rapeseed
meal is an excellent feed for animals.
is different from rapeseed and it is lower in erucic acid and
glucosinolates, which are anti-nutritive and health. Canola type
varieties are free of these elements.
Rapeseed is well adapted in temperate region and requires cool
temperature for vegetative and reproductive growth. The growth cycle
of rapeseed may be as short as 70 days or long as 380 days. Rapeseed
and Mustard grow best under relatively cool temperatures upto
flowering. After flowering they can tolerate high temperature,
however, more heat and drought stress may result in a reduction of
seed size, crop yield and oil contents. Among rape and mustard
crops, sarson is the most susceptible to frost injury whereas,'raya'
and taramira are more tolerant to extreme weather condition.
Rapeseed-mustard can be grown on a wide range of soils including
both light and heavy type. Crop can tolerate a variable range of pH
from 5.5 to 8.0. However, the most suitable soils are those that
- Deep and free from
hardpan, allow good taproot development, uniformly textured, allow
- Unlikely to crust
after rain, so that the seedling can emerge easily.
- Not prompt to
water logging, rapeseed will tolerate winter waterlogging. This
applies especially to B.
- Not Acidic with
high aluminum and manganese levels.
Brassica seed must be placed into a firm, moist warm aerated,
well-structured seedbed for rapid germination and seedling growth. A
good seedbed for rape and mustard should be reasonably levelled,
well packed, slightly lumpy and moist within 2-5 cm of the surface.
A loose seedbed with large lumps dries out quickly and affects
germination adversely. A very fine seedbed is also not suitable, as
heavy rains followed by drought may result in crust formation and
impede emergence. A comparatively moist seedbed is desired for zaid
Kharif crop to obtain a good germination. Wet soils should be
avoided. Rapeseed can be established successfully using direct
drilling and zero tillage.
For optimum seed bed
preparation one mould board plough 30-40 days before planting is
required to preserve moisture. At the time of planting 2-3 times
cultivator followed by planking is sufficient for seed bed
Timing will be influenced by soil, variety/hybrid, temperature and
moisture level. The planting schedule for different areas is as
NWFP: Mid-September to mid October
Punjab: 1st October to 1st November
South Punjab: Mid-October to mid November
Sindh: Mid-October to mid November * * Balochistan:
Mid-October to mid November
Yields are not affected significantly due to varied plant densities.
Moderate adjustments in seed rate have little effect on yield. Thin
crop stand compensate by extra branching. However, recommended
seeding rates is 1.5 to 2.0 kg/acre.
- Lower than normal
seed rate will help to reduce lodging and harvest.
- Seed rate above 2.5
kg/acre will result in tall spindly plants prone to lodging.
- Increased seed rate
suppresses weed infestation. At NARC, it has been observed that
dense crop stand discourages too many branching and crop matures
more uniformly which facilitate combining.
Method of Planting:
For obtaining higher yield and better crop management,
Rapeseed-mustard should be grown in rows. Optimum row spacing is 30
to 45 cm through a grain box of standard wheat sowing equipment by
doing required adjustments for row spacing and placement of seed at
The seed box on
modern machines can be calibrated to the recommended low seed rate.
If this is not possible, mix seed with the fertilizer, seed mixed in
this way will only be in contact with the fertilizer for a short
period and germination will not be affected. Use this technique with
phosphorus fertilizer only, as those compounds containing nitrogen
may affect germination.
Soil temperature and the availability of surface moisture will
influence sowing depth. Drill seed into moist soil to an even,
shallow depth of 2 to 4 cm, although seeds are small, the seedlings
grow vigorously and will normally germinate satisfactorily. Deeper
sowing will result in poor emergence, especially in tight soils.
Early in the season
sow seeds deeper than 4 cm if necessary, as temperatures are higher
and the seedbed will dry out more rapidly and possible deeper.
Requirements: Soil fertility
is one of the key manageable factor among all the crop production
factors in rapeseed production. Nutrient balance is extremely
important for getting higher yields of rapeseed.
by Rapeseed: Once nitrogen is
taken up by the plant roots, it moves freely within the plants where
it becomes a constituent of protein and other cellular compounds
such as chlorophyll. Rapeseed responds strongly to nitrogen
fertilizer on deficient soils. Results of field experiments have
shown that satisfactory and profitable yields of rapeseed can be
produced on stubble land or in a Continuous cropping system with
adequate fertilizer nitrogen and effective weed control. Under dry
land conditions, profitable yield increases have been obtained in
stubble field experiments, under good moisture, with rates of
nitrogen upto 135 kg ha-1. Crop responses to fertilizer nitrogen are
influenced by soil type, moisture conditions and nutrient balance.
High rates should only be applied when a soil test indicates they
are needed. Nitrogen applied to a summer fallow field with higher
available nitrogen content is not justified and may cause delayed
maturity, the response generally does not justify the expense.
Phosphorus Use by
Rapeseed: The phosphorus
requirements for good yields of rapeseed are equal to or greater
than those for wheat or barley. Rapeseed takes up phosphorus from
the soil rapidly in the early growth stages and continues to remove
phosphorus over a period of more then eight weeks. Due to the
immobility of phosphorus in soil, it is important that phosphorus
fertilizer be placed close to the seed where the young plant has
access to this nutrient early in the season.
An adequate supply of
phosphorus enables the plant to develop a strong, healthy rooting
system early in the season. This allows the plant to obtain
nutrients and moisture from lower depths in the soils and survive
periods of drought that may occur later in the growing season.
Phosphorus helps rapeseed plants use moisture more efficiently.
Adequate phosphorus also results in more uniform blooming, good seed
production and faster maturity. Lack of available phosphorus results
in a poorly developed root system, reduced branching of plants, and
reduced yield. A severe phosphorus deficiency generally results in
reduced growth and may show up as a dark green or purplish
coloration of the leaves.
by Rapeseed: Rapeseed takes
up nearly as much potassium as it does nitrogen and therefore, has a
high potassium requirement. Potassium increases plant vigor,
increases straw strength potassium helps speed healing of wound from
insects or hail and wind.When a soil is deficient in potassium, the
crop yield will be reduced, and responses to nitrogen and phosphorus
will be small. In severe cases of potassium deficiency, the edges of
older leaves will become yellow or scorched.
Rapeseed seedlings are very susceptible to weed competition in the
first few weeks after emergence. An effective weed control during
this period is vital. The crop canopy usually closes 6 to 8 weeks
after emergence and then rapeseed becomes an excellent weed
competitor due to increased canopy.
Requirements: Number of
irrigation varies with environmental conditions Temperature,
rainfall), soil type, and variety/hybrid. Generally rapeseed
requires 3-4 irrigations depending upon rains. Moisture stress
during flowering, pod formation and seed development stages affects
Critical stages of
4-6 weeks after emergence.
Seed formation stage.
INSECTS PESTS OF
Rapeseed crops is
attacked by a number of pests, the most significant being
red-legged earth mites and blue oat mites during establishment; and
cabbage aphids, turnip aphids during flowering and pod formation.
Red-legged earth mite
(Halotydeus destructor) Blue
oat mite (Penthaleus major): The mites may seriously
damage the crop establishment. They feed the foliage of seedlings
and young plants, piercing the outer cells and sucking cell sap.
Damaged leaves appear mottled and white or silver and heavily
infested leaves may wilt or shrivel. Severely damaged plants usually
remain stunted. Heavily infested seedlings and young plants may are
damaged severely or killed.
earth mites are somewhat flattened and about 1 mm long with velvety
black bodies and bright red legs. They feed gregariously, usually on
the upper side of the leaves.
Adult blue oat mites
are about 1 mm long with pear shaped rounded, purple-blue, greenish
blue or black bodies and bright pinkish red legs. Blue oat mites
feed either singly or in small groups of five to ten mostly on the
underside of the leaves.
Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne
brassicae) Turnip aphid (Linaphis
Cabbage aphids and
turnip aphids may infest rapeseed crops at any stage of growth but
damage is most common during the flowering and pod formation period.
The cabbage aphid is gray while the turnip aphid is green. Otherwise
the two aphids are similar in size, general appearance and often
occur in mixed infestations. Dense clusters of the sap-sucking
aphids may form on the flowers and upper stems through the combined
effect of their feeding, can seriously reduce or prevent pod set and
podfill. The crop should be monitored regularly, particularly during
flowering, to observe aphids population. If the population increases
the economic threshold then spraying of suitable insecticide is
recommended. Control of few aphids through chemical control not only
uneconomical but may also result in destruction of the beneficial
pests and predators, which often keep aphid, numbers down.
MAIN DISEASES OF
Sclerotinia Stem and
Root Rot (Sclerotinia
All parts of the plants i.e., stem, root, pod and leaves are
attacked. Infected areas show cottony mycelium growth associated
with large, round to irregular shaped, black sclerotia (2-15 mm in
size). Sclerotia also develop within the pith. At maturity, the
diseased tissue tends to shred upon handling. Releasing sclerotia
into the soil or in the crop as it is harvested. Occasionally
sclerotia are found in pods, side branches. Pods may also be
infected and killed.
- Deep ploughing of
soil will help to minimize the disease because burial of sclerotia
at 8 cm checks the formation of apothecia and ascospores.
- A long rotation
with at least four years between susceptible crops to reduce the
incidence and severity of disease.
- Susceptible weed
and volunteer plants should be destroyed to reduce the disease
- Routine cleaning
of seed followed: spiral cleaner removes nearly all sclerotia.
This, too, will reduce the inoculum in the field.
- Seed treatment
(for control of seed contamination by sclerotia of the pathogen),
apply Thiabendazole at the rate of 400 mg/100 kg seed.
Stem, Leaf and Pod
Spots, (Alternaria black spots)
The disease first appear on the cotyledons with light brown spots
which rapidly turn black due to appearance of spore masses and act
as source of infection for other healthy plant. Leaf spots range
from gray to black depending upon moisture conditions. Each leaf
lesion may be surrounded by chlorotic area. Lesions consisting of
well marked concentric zones are often seen. Defoliation is an
important consequence of leaf infection. Stem and pods spots are
brown to black and may become large frequently developing grayish
varieties of rape may reduce loss due to Alternaria black spot.
- Weed control
appears to be more critical for this disease.
- Use quality seed to
reduce the inoculum of the pathogen.
- Seed treatment with
fungicides is beneficial to control seed borne diseases.
- Resistant varieties
provide the most economical way to control the disease.
- Foliar sprays with
systemic fungicide control the disease to some extent but is
unpractical for large acreage.
is a critical operation, its harvesting at optimum time is very
important because early harvesting can reduce seed quality and late
harvesting can enhance pod shattering. Harvesting of
Rapeseed-mustard is recommended when all the seeds are black and
seed moisture is less then 15% (when 60-70% pods turn yellow). Crop
should be harvested early in the morning. When the plants are moist,
otherwise yield losses occur due to shattering.
When the harvested crop dry completely, It should be threshed in
clear weather. Threshing can be done by thresher, bullocks or
tractor after which winnowing is needed to clean the seed.
Damp or green seed, are impurities in the seeds can be a problem
especially when weather conditions at harvest are unpredictable.
Ventilation of seed in a store is essential in order prevent
heating. It is recommended that seed should be dried properly at 9%
moisture content, otherwise it will be damaged by fungi and insects
and germination ability will be impaired.
Dunkeld, Rainbow, Oscar, Con-I(early maturing, in 160 days), 19-H.
BARD-1, Chakwal Raya, Sultan Raya, KS-75
Hyola-420, Hyola 308, Hyola 401.
Tarnab-I, Tarnab-II, Tarnab-III
AVAIILABRATY OF SEED
Seed of these
varieties can be purchased from the
- Oilseed Research
Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC),
Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar,
- Regional offices of
Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB)
- ICI, Pakistan seeds
(pvt.) Ltd. Lahore (for purchase of hybrid seed).
Agriculture Research Council