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Pakistan Agriculture Overview

Agreement on apportionment of water of the Indus River System 1991.

1. There was an agreement that the issue relating to Apportionment of the waters of the Indus River System should be settled as quickly as possible.

2. In the light of the accepted water distributional principles the following apportionment was agreed to :-

Province Kharif Rabi Total
Punjab 37.07 18.87 55.94
Sindh * 33.94 14.82 48.76
NWFP (a) 3.48 2.3 5.78
b) Civil Canals **      1.80 1.2 3.00
Balochistan       2.85 1.02 3.87
Total 77.34 37.01 114.35
** 1.8 1.2 3
(Fig in MAF)
* Including already sanctioned Urban and Industrial uses for Metropolitan Karachi.
** Ungauged Cival Canals above the rim stations

3. NWFP/ Balochistan projects which are under execution have been provided their authorized quota of water as existing uses.

4. Balance river supplies (including flood supplies and future storages ) shall be distributed as below :-

Punjab  Sindh  Balochistan  NWFP  Total
37 37 12 14 100 %

5. Industrial and Urban Water supplies for Metropolitan City, for which there were sanctioned allocations, will be accorded priority.

6. The need for storages, wherever feasible on the Indus and other rivers was admitted and recognized by the participants for planned future agricultural development.

7. The need for certain minimum escapage to sea, below Kotri, to check sea intrusion was recognized. Sindh held the view, that the optimum level was 10 MAF, which was discussed at length, while other studies indicated lower/high figures. It was, therefore, decided that further studies would be undertaken to establish the minimal eseapage needs down stream Kotri.

8. There would be no restrictions on the provinces to undertake new projects within their agreed shares.

9. No restrictions are placed on small schemes not exceeding 5000 acres above elevation of 1200 ft. SPD.

10. No restrictions are placed on developing irrigation uses in the Kurram / Gomal / Kohat basins, so long as these do not adversely affect the existing uses on these rivers.

11. There are no restrictions on Blochestan, to develop the water resources of the Indus right bank tributaries, flowing through its areas.

12. The requirements of LBOD will be met out of the flood supplies in accordance with the agreed sharing formula.

13. For the implementation of this accord, the need to establish an Indus River System Authority was recognized and accepted. It would have headquarters at Lahore and would have representation from all the four province.

14. 
(a) The system-wise allocation will be worked out separately, on ten daily basis and will be attached with this agreement as part and parcel of it.

(b) The record of actual average system uses for the period 1977-82, would form the guide line for developing a future regulation pattern. These ten daily uses would be adjusted pro-rata to correspond to the indicated seasonal allocations of the different canal systems and would form the basis for sharing shortages and surpluses on all Pakistan basis.

(c) The existing reservoirs would be operated with priority for the irrigation uses of the Provinces.

(d) The provinces will have the freedom within their allocations to modify system-wise and period-wise uses.

(e) All efforts would be made to avoid wastages. Any surpluses may be used by another province, but this would not establish any rights to such uses.

World Bank Report on Pakistan' Agriculture status

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