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Fodder Crops & Weeds Eradication Techniques 
By Muh Salman Naeem

Fodder Crops & Weeds Eradication Techniques :- Pakissan.comIn general speaking, a more intense plant stands in field allows the crop to compete better with weeds.

After a certain point, however, the benefits of an increased plant population do not overweight the cost of additional seed, especially when seed cost is high.

Seeding rates can be used as part of an incorporated herbicide resistance management plan.

Weed Science Departments are actually working in such phenomenon.

Researchers conducted studies in 2013 and 2014 to determine the most effective seeding rates when used with or without pre-emergence herbicides.

With the reduced seeding rate, fields had fewer crop specific plants and a slower-to-develop crop canopy, providing weeds a greater prospect to establish and bloom in the field.

Canopy development, an important component of integrated weed management, relies on the growth of the crop.

Through the higher seeding rate, Crop had a competitive advantage over weeds and closed canopy earlier, thus reducing weed growth.

Due to increased crop density, total plant biomass should be increased, which resulted in higher weed suppression.

High seed rate can also affect other aspects of crop production just like costly seeds required high end inputs & managements to get good production, in cereals, cash crops and forages.

For example hybrid maize requires more NPK to get high yield ratio to overcome the effective seed cost.

 

In forages, yield issues are not considered foremost and usually crops behave different in local climate with different approaches.

• In irrigated areas, high seed rate is considered good to produce good quality fodder with high digestibility. Plant stem size remains medium due to dense population in limited area and high in nutrition.

• In rain fed area, high seed rate is often not recommended due to low available moisture for seeds.

• Lower seeding rate achieved beneficial crop yields and economic returns when combined with a pre and post sowing herbicide.

Row Spacing:
Narrow row spacing with a higher seed rate can work together to reduce overall weed competition. Newly developed drill for very narrow seed plantation at (4-4.5 inches) can maximize yield of canola, alfalfa and wheat at higher seeding rates.

10 kg seed require for alfalfa sowing through broadcast method, it can be lower down to 6 kg through drill method with reduced weeds issues.

Mixed cropping: is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. It is also known as multiple cropping considered best sowing plan for fodder in Punjab in winter season.

In winter season, alfalfa and clover fodder crops are usually mixed with rye grass, spinach or mustard crop not only to get good production but on nutritional point of view.

Alfalfa and clover both belongs from leguminous family having high pretentious source but grass crops are twice in yield than legume crops and available in field for long time resistant against adverse conditions.

Weeds can be a big issue in single crop and reduced many folds due to two cropping behaviors.

Intercropping: When two or more crops are grown together, each must have adequate space to maximize cooperation and minimize competition between the crops.

Fodder crops like alfalfa and clover in different fruit orchards are good example of intercropping.

Fluid irrigation is the general irrigation method in Pakistan. Its mutual beneficial cropping for grower and soil in sense of fertility through legume fodder for orchard and use nutrition’s which are far aside from fruit plant roots.


January 2015
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